Hướng dẫn RELATIVE CLAUSES – MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ TRONG TIẾNG ANH

Hướng dẫn RELATIVE CLAUSES – MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ TRONG TIẾNG ANH

RELATIVE CLAUSES – MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ TRONG TIẾNG ANH

I/ DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

  • A/RELATIVE PRONOUNS
  • Person
  • Thing/Animal
  • Subject
  • who/that
  • which/that
  • Ex: I asked a policeman. He wasn’t very helpful.
  • -> I asked a policeman who wasn’t very helpful.
  • (who + verb)
  • Ex: They built a wall. It fell down after 3 weeks.
  • -> They built a wall which fell down after 3 weeks.
  • (which + verb)
  • Object
  • whom/that
  • which/that
  • Ex: The man didn’t come back again. I told him a lie.
  • ->The man whom I told a lie didn’t come back again.
  • (whom + S)
  • Ex: I enjoy the music. I often listen to it after dinner.
  • -> I enjoy the music which I often listen to after dinner.
  • (which + S)
  • Possessive
  • whose
  • whose
  • Ex: The girl has a good voice. I never remember her name.
->The girl whose name I never
(whose + N)
remember has a good voice.
Ex: I found an air compressor. Its fans were broken. (Tôi thấy một cái máy nén khí . Cái quạt của nó bị gãy.)
  • -> I found an air compressor whose fans were broken. (Tôi thấy một cái máy nén khí cái có cái quạt bị gãy.)
  • (whose + N)


  • B/ RELATIVE ADVERBS
  • Time
  • Place
  • Reason
  • when
  • where
  • why
  • Ex: The day was rainy.
  • She left on that day.
  • -> The day when she left was rainy.
  • Ex: The house is very old.
  • He lives in that house.
  • ->The house where he lives is very old.
  • Ex: I don’t know the reason. She left for that reason.
-> I don’t know
the reason why she left.
* NOTES:

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND RELATIVE ADVERBS


1. ….. Nngười + WHO + V + ……

2. …... Nngười + (prep) + (WHO/WHOM) + S + V + …..

3. ……Nvật + (prep) + WHICH + ……

4. …… N1 + WHOSE / OF WHICH+ N2 + ….. (N2 là của N1 )

5. …… Nthời gian + WHEN + ………. (WHEN = in/on/at… + WHICH.) TRẠNG TỪ QH (Relative Adverbs)

6. …… Nnơi chốn + WHERE + ………. (WHERE = in/on/at… + WHICH.) TRẠNG TỪ QH (Relative Adverbs)

7. …… REASON lý do + WHY + ………. (WHY = FOR + WHICH) TRẠNG TỪ QH (Relative Adverbs)

8. THAT có thể thay thế cho WHO, WHOM hoặc WHICH trong MĐQH xác định. Do đó, trong trường hợp này thì trước THAT không có giới từ, không có danh từ riêng, không có dấu phẩy.

9. Khi Whom, Which, That làm OBJECT và không có giới từ liền trước thì mệnh đề có thể BỎ Whom, Which, That

N + whom / which/ that (O) + SV
OMISSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS: (lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ)

Ex:
The man whom/ that you met yesterday is my uncle.

à The man you met yesterday is my uncle.

The song which we like to listen to is interesting.

à The song we like to listen to is interesting.

10……. DÙNG “THAT” VÀ KHÔNG ĐƯỢC DÙNG “THAT” TRONG CÁC TRƯỜNG HỢP SAU:

MUST
MUSTN’T
- Người + vật (the man and his dog) + THAT
- IT + BE +..... + THAT
- Sau giới từ (in, on, with, to…) + WHOM/WHICH
- Trong mệnh đề quan hệ có dấu phẩy. (Non-defining relative clauses)


II/ NON-DEFINING AND DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES:

Defining relative clauses
: là mệnh đề quan hệ xác định/ giới hạn.

Ex:
The man who is sitting next to you is my uncle.

Non-defining relative clauses: là mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định/ không giới hạn thường bắt đầu bằng dấu phẩy.

Ex: That man, whom you saw yesterday, is Mr. Pike.

Mệnh đề quan hệ không giới hạn được sử dụng khi có từ xác định:

- TÊN RIÊNG: Mary, whose sister I know, has won an Oscar.

TÊN RIÊNG, TÊN bệnh (cancer, meals,…), TÊN học (geology, geography, maths, geometry,…), TÊN môn thể thao (swimming, football, soccer, volleyball, …), TÊN mạng xã hội (facebook, twitter,…),


  • - TÍNH TỪ SỞ HỮU: Do you know my son, who had an operation last night?
  • - CÓ this / that / these / those: Please post these letters, which I wrote this morning.
  • Mệnh đề quan hệ bổ nghĩa cả câu
Ex: a) He offered to help me. This was very kind of him.

He offered to help me, which was very kind of him.

b) Jim passed his driving test. This surprised everybody.

  • Jim passed his driving test, which surprised everybody.
5. all/none/few… of them à ,all/none/few… of which/whom


REWRITE:

B1:
Xác định 2 đối tượng quan hệ (cùng chỉ về 1 người/vật) trong 2 câu

B2: Viết câu đến đối tượng 1 (* Chú ý 4 trường hợp dấu phẩy và whose + N), dùng who/whom/which/that/whose/where/when/why thay đối tượng 2.

B3: Viết câu đối tượng 2 rồi hoàn thành câu đối tượng 1.

* Chú ý 4 trường hợp dấu phẩy và whose + N



PRACTICE

  • Exercise. Choose A,B,C,D
  • (QG 2019) Fairy tales present real problems in a fantasy form _____ children are able to understand.
  • A. where B. why C. that D. who
  • (QG 2018) In Atlanta, in the US, this has even led to thunderstorms ____ occur in the morning rather than, as is more common, in the afternoon.
  • A. when B. which C. what D. where
  • (QG 2018) Employers will generally look favorably on people ____ have shown an ability to work as part of a team.
  • A. which B. what C. whose D. who
  • (QG 2017) Reading them can, undoubtedly, help students develop the skills ____ are necessary to read more challenging works.
  • A. where B. that C. who D. when
  • (QG 2017) Today's world is entirely different from the things ____ have just been described.
  • A. when B. that C. what D. where
  • (QG 2017) This no doubt explains the reason ____ schoolboys remember football results effortlessly but struggle with dates from their history lessons!
  • A. why B. what C. how D. which
  • (MH 2017) He passed the exams with high scores, that made his parents happy. A B C D
  • (QG 2016) The science of medicine, which progress has been very rapid lately, is perhaps the most important of all sciences. A B C D
  • (QG 2016) This results in a situation ____ a person’s body doesn’t get all the vitamins and other things that it needs to stay healthy.
  • A. what B. which C. why D. where
  • (QG 2015) The receptionist, ______ answered the phone, told me that the director was out.
  • A. whose B. whom C. who D. that
  • (DH 2014-A1) A good night's sleep is also crucial for teenagers because it is while they are asleep ____ they release a hormone that is essential for their 'growth spurt' .
A. where B. that C. which D. at which

  • (CD 2014) I always look back on the time where I spent with my family on a farm in California. A B C D
  • (DH 2013-D) The Lake District, _____ was made a national park in 1951, attracts a large number of tourists
every year.

A. that B. where C. what D. which

(DH 2013-A1) Her mother, ______ has been working for thirty years, is retiring next month.

A. who B. that C. whom D. whose

  • (DH 2013-A1) I like the fresh air and green trees of the village which I spent my vacation last year.
  • (CD 2013) One of the greatest, and certainly one of the most successful, illustrator-authors was Dr. Seuss, ____ real name was Theodor Geisel.
A. whose B. who’s C. who D. whom

(CD 2013) He went back to the town ______ he was born.

A. where B. what C. which D. that

(CD 2013) He works in the same office with two women. They are very beautiful and tactful.

A. The two women’s beauty and tact explain why he wants to work at their office.

B. He works in the same office with two women who are very beautiful and tactful.

C. The offices where he and the two very beautiful and tactful women work are the same.

D. Working in the same office with the two beautiful women makes him very tactful.

  • (CD 2009) The woman of whom the red car is parked in front of the bank is a famous pop star. A B C D
  • (CD 2009) Tears contain an antiseptic ______ helps protect our eyes from infection.
A. that B. where C. how D. what

  • (CD 2008) The British national anthem, calling “God Save the Queen”, was a traditional song in the 18th century.
  • (CD 2008) He arrived late, ______ was annoying.
A. it B. that C. what D. which

(CD 2007) John Smith is a farmer. I bought his land.

A. John Smith, whose land I bought, is a farmer. B. John Smith, whom I bought his land, is a farmer.

C. John Smith, who is a farmer, bought his land. D. John Smith, who is a farmer, whose land I bought.

REWRITE:

B1:
Xác định 2 đối tượng quan hệ (cùng chỉ về 1 người/vật) trong 2 câu

B2: Viết câu đến đối tượng 1, (* Chú ý 4 trường hợp dấu phẩy và whose + N ) dùng who/whom/which/that/whose/where/when/why thay đối tượng 2.

B3: Viết câu đối tượng 2 rồi hoàn thành câu đối tượng 1.

  • * Chú ý 4 trường hợp dấu phẩy và whose + N
Exercise 3: Combine sentences by using relative pronouns: who, whom, which, whose

  • The book was written by Mark Twain. I borrowed the book from Tom.
  • The Smiths were given rooms in the hotel. Their house had been destroyed in the explosion.
  • My uncle is very interested in science. You met him at the meeting last Sunday.
  • My father saw the whole thing. You can rely on his words.
  • à My father, WHOSE words you can rely on, saw the whole thing.
  • Elizabeth Taylor is a Hollywood actress. She acted in the film “Cleopatra”.
  • Julia’s father has just come back from a skiing holiday. He is over 80.
  • She was greatly influenced by her father. She adored him very much.
  • We went to the Riverside Restaurant. I once had lunch with Henry there. (where/AT WHICH)
  • Romeo and Juliet were lovers. Their parents hated each other.
  • Has anyone seen the book? I was reading it.
 
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